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One of the most surprising and (historically, at least) controversial aspects of quantum physics is that it's impossible to predict with certainty the outcome of a single experiment on a quantum system.
When physicists predict the outcome of some experiment, the prediction always takes the form of a probability for finding each of the particular possible outcomes, and comparisons between theory and experiment always involve inferring probability distributions from many repeated experiments.
As Paranormal Investigators, we do not want the “Theory of Probability” based on a best guess.
As Paranormal Investigators, we want the “Theory of Relativity” based on best evidence.
The mathematical description of a quantum system typically takes the form of a "Wave-function," generally represented in equations by the Greek letter psi. Ψ.
There's a lot of debate about what, exactly, this wave-function represents, breaking down into two main camps: those who think of the wave-function as a real physical thing (the jargon term for these is "ontic" theories, leading some witty person to dub their proponents "psi-ontologists") and those who think of the wave-function as merely an expression of our knowledge (or lack thereof) regarding the underlying state of a particular quantum object ("epistemic" theories).
In either class of foundational model, the probability of finding an outcome is not given directly by the wave-function, but by the square of the wave-function (loosely speaking, anyway);.
The wave-function is a complex mathematical object (meaning it involves imaginary numbers like the square root of negative one), and the operation to get probability is slightly more involved, but "square of the wave-function" is enough to get the basic idea).
This is known as the "Born Rule" after German physicist Max Born who first suggested this (in a footnote to a paper in 1926), and strikes some people as an ugly ad hoc addition. There's an active effort in some parts of the quantum foundations community to find a way to derive the Born rule from a more fundamental principle; to date, none of these have been fully successful, but it generates a lot of interesting science.
This is also the aspect of the theory that leads to things like particles being in multiple states at the same time.
All we can predict is probability, and prior to a measurement that determines a particular outcome, the system being measured is in an indeterminate state that mathematically maps to a superposition of all possibilities with different probabilities.
Whether you consider this as the system really being in all of the states at once, or just being in one unknown state depends largely on your feelings about ontic versus epistemic models, though these are both subject to constraints from the next item on the list:
So at school the two most hated subjects on my timetable were Physics and Mathematics, I didn’t get a grasp of either subject until I left school and joined the Royal Navy, where all of a sudden, Maths and Physics became part of my professional life and suddenly I understood why Maths and Physics are probably the two most important subjects that you should learn about, apart from reading and English, otherwise I wouldn't have been able to write this, and you wouldn't be able to read this, unless I typed this whole Thesis in Binary. 11100011110011001100110001110011010 you get the picture!!!!
Now, I am not per-porting to being the most clued up on this subject, and all my theories and witterings may be wrong, or correct.
Even Einstein got it wrong, (See chapter 4, the EPR Paper he produced), but it did inspire other scientists to stand on his shoulders and to correct his findings on EPR, hopefully, someone will be reading this and will be inspired enough to go forth and prove or disprove my theories, and credit themselves with proving the existence of the Paranormal with there own Thesis and produce a paper on it for the science world to ooh and aah at.
So here we go, hold on, I’m going to be pickling your head, but keep on reading, its going be fascinating, and open up a whole new approach to how you conduct your paranormal investigations.
Define the variables of the equation.
The first step to understanding any equation is to know what each variable stands for.
In this case, E is the energy of an object at rest, m is the object's mass, and c is the speed of light in vacuum.
The speed of light, c is constant in all reference frames and is roughly equal to 3.00x108 meters per second.
In the context of Einstein's relativity, the c2 functions more as a unit conversion factor than a constant.
As such, it is squared as a result of dimensional analysis - energy is measured in joules, or kg m2 s-2, so adding the c2 ensures that the relationship between energy and mass is dimensionally consistent.
Understand what is meant by energy.
There are many forms of energy including thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear and more.
Energy is transferred between systems giving power to one system while taking it away from another.
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, it can only take a different form.
For example, coal has a lot of potential energy that turns into thermal energy when it is burned.
Define what mass means. Mass is generally defined as the amount of matter in an object.
There are also a few other definitions of mass. There exists "invariant mass," and "relativistic mass." Invariant mass is mass that remains unchanged no matter what frame of reference you are in.
Relativistic mass, on the other hand, depends on the object's velocity. In the equation E = mc2, m refers to the invariant mass. This is very important, because this means that your mass does not grow as you go faster, contrary to popular belief.
It’s important to understand that mass and weight are different. Weight is the gravitational force felt by an object, while mass is the amount of matter in that object. Mass can only change if the object is physically altered, while weight changes depending on the gravity of the environment the object is in. Mass is measured in kilograms (kg) while weight is measured in newtons (N).
Like energy, mass can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can also change form.
For example, an ice cube can melt into a liquid, but it still has the same mass in both states.
Realise that mass and energy are equivalent.
The equation states that mass and energy are the same thing and tells you how much energy is contained inside a certain amount of mass.
Essentially, the equation explains that a small amount of mass is full of a large amount of energy.
So what does Einstein's equation have to do with ghosts and in particular hunting them with the equipment we use?
To answer that question we could equate spirits as the energy, and to appear as an apparition a mass.
How often have you asked or heard asked for spirit to use its energy to communicate or to appear?
Well if Einstein's theory is correct then, "energy is equal to mass" and vice versa.
Light shown here as both a particle (below) and a wave (above).
We had interaction with all of the electro meagnetic spectrum devices as shown above, but none worked in conjunction with the SLS camera.
We were a little disheartened as this in our view would have given us the evidence as well as adding more credibility to the SLS capture being a true capture of a spirit, as we could show the proof/evidence in the readings or interaction with the devices that use electro magnetic radiation, working, alongside the SLS camera whilst it was producing the image.
It wasn't until the next day I realised why !!!!!
Einstein said, and this is now backed up with the new quantum science,"Energy and mass cannot exist at the same time", you can have one or the other, but not both!
We are now looking at conducting other experiments with the SLS camera hoping to prove with out reaonable doubt, that what we are imaging is the mass of a spirit manifesting (albeit invisible)(Dark Matter/Mass).
Science tries to understand the world and ourselves by its understanding of good quality evidence and rational argument, and that in turn produces reliable knowlege.
To fully understand Dark Matter and Dark Energy we need to first, understand Einstein's most famous equation.
The implications of E=mc2 are profound.
For centuries, scientists had considered energy and mass to be completely distinct and unrelated to each other.
(The same could be said today about 21st century scientists views that you cannot see dark matter).
Einstein showed that in fact, energy and mass are different forms of the same thing.
In one of Albert Einstein’s revolutionary scientific papers published in 1905,
E=mc2 was introduced; where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light in a vacuum.
Since then, E=mc2 has become one of the most famous equations in the world.
Even people with no background in physics have at least heard of the equation and are aware of its prodigious influence on the world we live in.
However, most people do not exactly know what the equation means.
In simple terms, the equation represents the correlation of energy to matter: essentially, energy and matter are but two different forms of the same thing.
In my theory I am correlating Einstein's theory, with the Paranormal.
This relatively simple equation has altered the way we think about energy and provided us with numerous technological advances.
In the world of Paranormal, ask yourself which phrases you use most often when calling out to spirit. Are they similar to these examples?
“If there are are any spirits here, make yourself known” - “Use yourenergy to let us know you are here” - “Use your energy to manifest yourself so we can see you”
The full light Spectrum, only a very small percentage of light is visible by the human eye alone.
When used in paranormal fields and map the stick figure only as in Fig 11. But what is the camera mapping to create the stick man figure?
It doesn't interact with baryonic matter and it's completely invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, making dark matter impossible to detect with current instruments. (Read on to my theory on the SLS camera and dark matter at the end of this chapter).
I would argue that we do detect with our current instruments, the scientists just cant prove it yet as they cant see Dark Matter, so we have to ask the question, if they could see it, would they know what they were looking at anyway?
But scientists are confident it exists because of the gravitational effects it appears to have on galaxies and galaxy clusters.(But this is Cosmology, not paranormal). That’s because scientists study science, so the Universe/Cosmos is a place to look as they can see that, and they have expensive toys to use to do there experiments, and rockets and satellites in space to enable those experiments, and they like the word credibility, with out it, they would be considered by other scientists as quacks. I call it small minded, by only looking out side of the box will you see what’s out there.
Dark energy is even more mysterious, and its discovery in the 1990s was a complete shock to scientists.
Previously, physicists had assumed that the attractive force of gravity would slow down the expansion of the universe over time. But when two independent teams tried to measure the rate of deceleration, they found that the expansion was actually speeding up.
One scientist likened the finding to throwing a set of keys up in the air expecting them to fall back down-only to see them fly straight up toward the ceiling.
Scientists now think that the accelerated expansion of the universe is driven by a kind of repulsive force generated by quantum fluctuations in otherwise "empty" space. What's more, the force seems to be growing stronger as the universe expands.
For lack of a better name, scientists call this mysterious force Dark Energy.
Unlike for Dark matter, scientists have no plausible explanation for Dark energy.
According to one idea, dark energy is a fifth and previously unknown type of fundamental force called “quintessence”, which fills the universe like a fluid.
Many scientists have also pointed out that the known properties of dark energy are consistent with a cosmological constant, a mathematical Band-Aid that Albert Einstein added to his theory of general relativity to make his equations fit with the notion of a static universe.
According to Einstein, the constant would be a repulsive force that counteracts gravity, keeping the universe from collapsing in on itself.
Einstein later discarded the idea when astronomical observations revealed that the universe was expanding, calling the cosmological constant his "biggest blunder."
Now that we see the expansion of the universe is accelerating, adding in dark energy as a cosmological constant could neatly explain how space-time is being stretched apart. But that explanation still leaves scientists clueless as to why the strange force exists in the first place.
You all know one of the greatest scientist there ever lived, Albert Einstein, who was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics.
Einstein's work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.
Einstein changed the world, describing the workings of reality better than anyone since Isaac Newton.
He came up with the theory of relativity, and its this theory I will use to prove that what we do, and the certain types of scientific/ITC equipment we use as Paranormal Investigators, proves beyond doubt that the Paranormal is real, and can be explained scientifically.
Scientists have not yet observed dark matter directly.
We have just looked at ‘Quantum Mechanics’ and the ‘Theory of Relativity’ so hopefully you now have a basic understanding of complex mathematical calculations, equations and how we can use these in the equipment we use.
Light forms in any form are wave form, and also a frequency waves as in the electro magnetic spectrum, and determine which side of the visible light spectrum they appear. See Fig.1.
We also learnt that Dark Matter and Energy, (albeit in the cosmos), can be measured, so we know it exists, now it is up to us to correlate the scientific work with our paranormal work, and provide the proof using our equipment to measure and document are findings.
I could have gone more in depth with this chapter, but I didn’t want to lose you, hopefully you made it here.
Why did I write this? I am intrigued in to what cannot be explained, The SLS camera simple in its invented application to use in the XBOX games, by mapping your body and using complex mapping technology, you become the controller and control the game.
When used in paranormal fields, we can map the human figure and is identifiable as a stick figure, with the outline of the living person captured as .in Fig 10, this is captured using the inbuilt laser grid and making a 3D image to create the stick man figure from solid matter.
A quantum teleportation experiment in action.
Quantum physics has a reputation of being weird because its predictions are dramatically unlike our everyday experience’s.
This happens because the effects involved get smaller as objects get larger-- if you want to see unambiguously quantum behaviour, you basically want to see particles behaving like waves, and the wavelength decreases as the momentum increases.
The wavelength of a macroscopic object like a dog walking across the room is so ridiculously tiny that if you expanded everything so that a single atom in the room were the size of the entire Solar System, the dog's wavelength would be about the size of a single atom within that solar system.
This means that, for the most part, quantum phenomena are confined to the scale of atoms and fundamental particles, where the masses and velocities are small enough for the wavelengths to get big enough to observe directly.
There's an active effort in a bunch of areas, though, to push the size of systems showing quantum effects up to larger sizes.
There are a number of groups in "cavity opto-mechanics" trying to use light to slow the motion of chunks of silicon down to the point where the discrete quantum nature of the motion would become clear.
There are even some suggestions that it might be possible to do this with suspended mirrors having masses of several grams, imagine using this to slow the motion of spirit energy (particle and wave forms) down to the point we have a clear defined image of an apparition, which would be amazingly cool, and provide the ultimate proof that Spirits/Ghosts exist.
I feel we are some years of, or if ever this experiment could ever be conducted, also my pay packet is not enough to enable me to buy the equipment required to conduct this type of experiment, and also finding a spirit energy at a location where you can set up the equipment in the exact spot where an apparition will appear, and be stable enough to take a reading and use the information to create the image required using “Cavity Opto-Mechanics”.
Until earth scientists take there heads out of the cosmos when using Quantum Mechanics, we will never know.
This experiment if it were to be carried out would provide the divine proof of life after death, using science and creating science fact.
With all this talk of Quantum Mechanics, I hear you asking, why I haven't included the science from British Genius Professor Stephen Hawking?
There is a reaon for that, he's to busy looking into Blackholes and wondering what happens when they dissapear, Stephen Hawking is a world-renowned British theoretical physicist, known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology, general relativity and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes.
He would in my opinion dismiss the study and research into the paranormal as folly, Stephen Hawking said, “There is no God. I am an atheist".
Thats why I haven't included any scientific research by Stephen as there isn't any, he is purely a cosmologist. I'm surprising myself that I am writing even this much about him.
There is no easy way to explain Quantum Physics, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. But we are going to try.
We ask ourselves what is a Spirit/Ghost apparition? do we know the answer? We think we do? We have been told that spirits use energy to be able to manifest, using energy from around them to be able to appear, make a sound, let us know they are there, and also that the spirit is an actual energy and this is why I am writing this Thesis.
This is a long long way from the Charlatan Victorian times, of trickery relying on séances, medium-ship, ouija boards, table tipping, tapping and banging and the like to provide evidence of the paranormal, to the vulnerable and easily influenced members of society at that time.
You can read our segment on Cheats and Charlatans .
This is what I like to call proper scientific research into providing credible evidence of the Paranormal.
I can hear you all saying, what the hell has physics got to do with paranormal investigating, well let me enlighten you all.
You are all not going to agree, but at least if anything, I can get you thinking differently as to what we do as a profession.
ITC research is one way of exploring scientifically into the realms of the Paranormal using bona-fide scientific equipment, whether using wave form, electro magnetic frequency, infra-red and Ultra Violet cameras using the full aspect of the light spectrum, and using thermal technology in the detection of paranormal evidence.
So lets get on with it.
The visible universe—including Earth, the sun, other stars, and galaxies—is made of protons, neutrons, and electrons bundled together into atoms.
Images of a hydrogen atom as seen through a quantum telescope.
It was only 40 years ago that we found out about dark matter and dark energy, it was only then we realised of how little of our world and universe we could actually see.
In 1983 Milgram proposed a Modified Newtonian Dynamics or MOND.
What is a MOND? The minimalist definition of MOND is an algorithm that permits calculation of force in an object from the observable distribution of baryonic matter with only one additional fixed parameter having units of acceleration, It Works! (Well at least for galaxies).
NB: At the moment all science in regards to dark matter and energy is cosmology. No research is afforded as of yet 2018 into paranormal research.
The MOND vs Dark Matter conflict -
Everything outside the solar system refuses to follow the laws of General Relativity/Newtonian gravity.
Either Gravity is fine, but there is an extra source we can’t see: The Dark Matter.
Or, the observations are telling us to modify gravity.
What we know is that dark matter can be measured, so is real and can therefore assume we can measure dark matter and energy that is given of by the spirits when using our detection equipment on paranormal investigations.
The Large Hadron Collider takes protons or lead ions and fires them at the speed of light around the 27 Km ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. Inside the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams travel at close to the speed of light before they are made to collide. The beams travel in opposite directions in separate beam pipes – two tubes kept at ultrahigh vacuum. They are guided around the accelerator ring by a strong magnetic field maintained by superconducting electromagnets. The electromagnets are built from coils of special electric cable that operates in a superconducting state, efficiently conducting electricity without resistance or loss of energy. This requires chilling the magnets to ‑271.3°C – a temperature colder than outer space.
The Large Hadron Collider is a gigantic machine that scientists hope will help them understand the universe.
The vast particle accelerator at Cern is helping physicists answer questions not covered by the accepted Standard Model, scientists hope this will help them understand the universe better than ever before.
It is thanks to these new experiments that we only now know about dark matter and dark energy, we were, before these new experiments were conducted, only looking at 5% of the total universe, now are eyes have been opened to the 95% of the universe we were not even aware of or even existed.
In the 1960s Peter Higgs was the first person to suggest that this particle might exist.
It was only recently though, on July 4, 2012, when scientists at CERN announced that they'd found a particle that behaved the way they expect the Higgs boson to behave, and then, on 14 March 2013, scientists at CERN tentatively confirmed that they had found a Higgs particle.
We now know afer finding the Higgs Boson particle, (a new element), that it is the Higg's that gives mass to matter.
The Higgs boson and its role in the universe are not the easiest things to explain. It doesn't help that the Higgs has the horrible nickname of "the God Particle" and is often described as being "responsible for mass in the universe" or something like that.
With research into the paranormal in mind a well known inventor, (Bill Chappell) of paranormal gadgets equipment produced, (after remodelling an Xbox camera) the SLS camera was born, using microsofts software and camera hardware, he had the idea that the 3D mapping software by using the inbuilt laser in the camera may produce an image of a spirit.
What happened next is really unexplained, unless you refer back to Einsteins theory of relativity and Quantum Mechanics with regard to energy and mass the 5% we can see and Dark energy and dark matter the 95% of the universe we cant see. This in someway goes into explaining how the SLS camera captures the spirit on camera.
So, Recently, we wanted to know if what we see on the SLS camera is an actual spirit, we have had good interaction with this type of spirit anomoly, asking it to do things like hold out an arm, touch my out stretched hand, stand on one leg etc etc... where we get an inteligent reponse to our requests, but although compelling evidence, as investigators we wanted more evidence.
So we deciding to set up an ITC (Instrumental Trans- communication) experiment alongside the SLS camera.
We wanted to set up our EMF equipment specific to test out a theory we had to conduct an experiment in determining if what we see is actually an apparition shown as the stick man figure as in fig11 above on the SLS camera.
We know with new science that we can't see dark matter or dark energy, this is the 95% of what I have explained above that we cannot see with the naked eye.
Do NOT confuse dark matter and dark energy with the occult, maleveloent spirit etc etc, this is not what this chapter on the paranormal is about.
We placed, an Ovilus 3, the new Paranormal Puck 2 Rev B, EMF meters, Mel meters and a Rem Pod in places where we have had known captures of spirit on the SLS camera, and after some time we had started to capture two images and was interacting with us.
The stand alone equipment we used in conjunction with the SLS camera all use the energy in the electro-magnetic spectrum.
Did you know that the last great contribution Einstein made to physics was not widely recognized as such, mostly because he was wrong.
I, like Einstein, have a theory as to why certain equipment’s we use can measure the activities of the Paranormal, using devices such as the Mel Meter, Rem-Pod, EMF meters, SLS cameras and the Paranormal Puck 2 device, just to name just a few.
This chapter doesn’t explain anything of how Paranormal is defined, but more so of how the Paranormal could be detected with scientific instruments.
The word "quantum" comes from the Latin for "how much" and reflects the fact that quantum models always involve something coming in discrete amounts.
The energy contained in a quantum field comes in integer multiples of some fundamental energy.
For light, this is associated with the frequency and wavelength of the light-- high-frequency, short-wavelength light has a large characteristic energy, which low-frequency, long-wavelength light has a small characteristic energy.
In both cases, though, the total energy contained in a particular light field is an integer multiple of that energy-- 1, 2, 14, 137 times-- never a weird fraction like one-and-a-half, π, or the square root of two.
This property is also seen in the discrete energy levels of atoms, and the energy bands of solids-- certain values of energy are allowed, others are not.
Atomic clocks work because of the discreteness of quantum physics, using the frequency of light associated with a transition between two allowed states in Cesium (alt spelling - Caesium) to keep time at a level requiring the much-discussed "leap second" that is added to time.
Leap seconds are added to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) – and clocks worldwide – in order to compensate for the slowing of the Earth's rotation. In an atomic clock second is defined by exactly 9,192,631,770 oscillations of a cesium atom.
Ultra-precise spectroscopy can also be used to look for things like dark matter, and is part of the motivation for a low-energy fundamental physics institute.
This isn't always obvious-- even some things that are fundamentally quantum, like black-body radiation, appear to involve continuous distributions.
But there's always a kind of granularity to the underlying reality if you dig into the mathematics, and that's a large part of what leads to the weirdness of the theory.
There is no solid life matter, so my theory is that it maps the unseen dark matter and or the energy from what was a living being, and is picking up on the energy of the soul, as it is said that our living bodies are just vessels for the soul.
When we die, the soul leaves the body and is a free form energy, which is what we are identifying as the Ghost!
Our living bodies move and function through electronic stimulus through synapses, the electrical impulses from the brain to what ever part of the body it travels to to perform a command.
So when we die, there is a void in the universe that we once occupied, the energy is still there Dark Energy, our soul is the Dark Matter.
In cosmology the same happens when a star dies, you cannot see it, but we know its there (Black Holes). The energy can still be measured, as can the matter, and because its in the cosmos the scientists in this research also collate gravity data, giving the Black hole Mass.
Now just turn that cosmology on its head and use the same scientific data on us and in particular the deceased’s soul or ghost, and voilà, We can use proven scientific cosmology experiments and data to prove the existence of ghosts/paranormal activity.
Now all we need is a brave enough scientist to do the experiments and collate the data and prove or disprove my theory.
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. Einstein's work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.
Born: 14 March 1879, Ulm, Germany
Died: 18 April 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, United States
Children: Eduard Einstein, Hans Albert Einstein, Lieserl Einstein
Spouse: Elsa Einstein (m. 1919–1936), Mileva Marić (m. 1903–1919)
This article was written and edited by Spencer Shackleton.
I would like to thank Professor Chad Orzell for his input into the 6 things we need to know to understand quantum physics.
Always remember with the Paranormal.......
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum physics is usually just intimidating from the start.
It's kind of weird and can seem counter-intuitive, even for the physicists who deal with it every day.
But it's not incomprehensible.
If you're reading something about quantum physics, there are six key concepts about it that you should keep in mind.
These concepts are:
1) Everything Is Made Of Waves; Also, Particles
2) Quantum Physics Is Discrete
3) Quantum Physics Is Probabilistic
4) Quantum Physics Is Non-Local
5) Quantum Physics Is (Mostly) Very Small
6) Quantum Physics Is Not Magic
Do that, and you will find quantum physics a lot easier to understand.
The previous point leads very naturally into this one: as weird as it may seem, quantum physics is most emphatically not magic.
The things it predicts are strange by the standards of everyday physics, but they are rigorously constrained by well-understood mathematical rules and principles.
So, if somebody comes up to you with a "quantum" idea that seems too good to be true-- free energy, mystical healing powers, impossible space drives-- it almost certainly is.
The Paranormal hasn’t had any real Quantum study by scientists, probably due to time, money and losing there credibility by even going there in the first place.
That doesn't mean we can't use quantum physics to do amazing things-- you can find some really cool physics in mundane technology-- but those things stay well within the boundaries of the laws of thermodynamics and just basic common sense.
So there you have it: the core essentials of quantum physics.
I've probably left a few things out, or made some statements that are insufficiently precise to please everyone, but this ought to at least serve as a useful starting point for further discussion.
We know this via our detection equipment such as mel meters, EMF meters rem pods giving readings or actuating in response to our questions asked. Using the electro magnetic field (The Mass) created by the spirit’s energy.
You may notice that I like to quote the great man where I can in this Thesis. I stand on the shoulders of this giant, using his work to explain mine.
Now you understand the theory of relativity, this now leads us neatly into Quantum Physics, if your heads not already pickled, it soon will be, strap in and hold on
These oscillations created an image of "frozen" light.
The most common approach to understanding this result is to say that quantum mechanics is non-local: that the results of measurements made at a particular location can depend on the properties of distant objects in a way that can't be explained using signals moving at the speed of light.
This does not, however, permit the sending of information at speeds exceeding the speed of light, though there have been any number of attempts to find a way to use quantum non-locality to do that.
Refuting these has turned out to be a surprisingly productive enterprise-- check out David Kaiser's “How the Hippies Saved Physics” for more details.
Quantum non-locality is also central to the problem of information in evaporating black holes, and the "firewall" controversy that has generated a lot of recent activity.
There are even some radical ideas involving a mathematical connection between the entangled particles described in the EPR paper and wormholes.
Prof. Orzell is an Associate Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Union College, and writes books about science for non-scientists.
He has a BA in physics from Williams College and a Ph.D. in Chemical Physics from the University of Maryland, College Park (studying laser cooling at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the lab of Bill Phillips, who shared the 1997 Nobel in Physics).
He was a post-doc at Yale, and has been at Union since 2001.
There are lots of places to start this sort of discussion, and this is as good as any:
Everything in the universe has both particle and wave nature, at the same time.
In reality, everything Tangible is either a wave or a particle, but not both.
Your car is made of particles, and therefore a solid object that you can see and touch.
With the Paranormal we see the ‘Wave Form’, there are no solid particles, yet you can feel, but you cant touch them.
There's a line in Greg Bear's fantasy duology (The Infinity Concerto and The Serpent Mage), where a character describing the basics of magic says:- "All is waves, with nothing waving, over no distance at all."
I've always liked that as a poetic description of quantum physics-- deep down, everything in the universe has wave nature.
Of course, everything in the universe also has particle nature.
This seems completely crazy, but is an experimental fact, worked out by a surprisingly familiar process:
Of course, describing real objects as both particles and waves is necessarily somewhat imprecise. But could be said to be very precise when describing the Paranormal.
Properly speaking, the objects described by quantum physics are neither particles nor waves, but a third category that shares some properties of waves (a characteristic frequency and wavelength, some spread over space) and some properties of particles (they're generally countable and can be localised to some degree).
This leads to some lively debate within the physics education community about whether it's really appropriate to talk about light as a particle in intro physics courses; not because there's any controversy about whether light has some particle nature, but because calling photons "particles" rather than "excitations of a quantum field" might lead to some student misconceptions.
I tend not to agree with this, because many of the same concerns could be raised about calling electrons "particles."
This "door number three" nature of quantum objects is reflected in the sometimes confusing language physicists use to talk about quantum phenomena.
The Higgs boson was discovered at the Large Hadron Collider as a particle, but you will also hear physicists talk about the "Higgs field" as a de-localised thing filling all of space.
This happens because in some circumstances, such as collider experiments, it's more convenient to discuss excitations of the Higgs field in a way that emphasises the particle-like characteristics, while in other circumstances, like general discussion of why certain particles have mass, it's more convenient to discuss the physics in terms of interactions with a universe-filling quantum field.
It's just different language describing the same mathematical object.
Unbelievably, one of the most surprising discoveries of the 20th century was that this ordinary, or baryonic, matter makes up less than 5% of the mass of the universe.
The rest of the universe appears to be made of a mysterious, invisible substance called dark matter (25%) and a force that repels gravity known as dark energy (70%).